tr

tr is used to translate the characters given as input into new characters based on flags and strings given as input.

$ tr 'is' 'at'
this
that

Useful Options / Examples

tr [:upper:] [:lower:]

$ tr [:upper:] [:lower:]
PLEASE TRANSLATE ME.
please translate me.
Break it down
  • The [:upper:] and [:lower:] options are called sets. These are very useful when trying to select entire sets of characters, such as digits [:digit:], punctuation [:punct:], or all letters and digits [:alnum:].
  • Subsets of the sets listed above can also be specified using similar notation. [a-g] selects all lower case letters between a and g, and [3-7] selects all numbers between 3 and 7.
  • Different types of white space and also backslash characters can also be selected. For example, backspace \b, return \r, and backslash \\.

tr -d '\ '

$ tr -d '\ '
proper spacing is important
properspacingisimportant
Break it down
  • Flags can modify how tr treats each set. In this example, -d or --delete specifies that tr is to delete the characters given in the first set.
  • Other flags include -c or --complement, which specifies the complement of the first set; -s or --squeeze-repeats, which replaces each repeated character in the first set with only one occurance of that character; and -t or --truncate-set1, which truncates the first set to be the size of the second set.

pwd | tr '/' '\n'

$ pwd | tr '/' '\n' > WorkingDirectory.txt

Break it down

  • Here, the output of the pwd command is piped into a tr command that replaces the / characters with \n, or newline characters. The output is then redirected into a file named WorkingDirectory.txt.
  • The combination of piping, redirection, and optional flags make tr a good tool to use when modifying user input or poorly formatted / irregular text into something more managable.