tac

tac concatenates each file or command line input to standard output in reverse (hence tac = cat in reverse).

$ tac filename

If a filename is provided, tac prints the contents of the file line-by-line, starting with the last line first.

If no filename is provided, or the filename is inputted as -, tac reads input from the command line and prints it in reverse.

Additional Options/Examples

$ tac [OPTION] [FILE]

By default, line separators are newlines and are placed after each line of output. Use -b to place line separators before each line of output instead.

--before, -b

$ tac -b filename

To change the line separator to a provided string, use the command -s followed by the string. This feature is more commonly used when parsing command line input.

--seperator=STRING, -s [string]

For example:

$ echo -n sam1I1am | tac -s "1"

The output would be: amI1sam1

The input can be broken up into 3 individual parts: ‘sam’ ‘I’ and ‘am’. tac begins by looking at ‘am’, and since ‘am’ is not followed by a line separator(a “1”) in the command line input, ‘am’ is printed first without a trailing separator. Second, I is printed. However, because I is followed by a “1” in the command lie input, a “1” is printed after I. Lastly, the ‘sam’ is printed, and since ‘sam’ is followed by a line separator, a “1” is placed after ‘sam’.

$ echo -n sam1I1am | tac -b -s "1"

The output for this would be: 1am1Isam

This is because in the above example, the line separator is placed after the string, whereas using the -b option puts the line separator before the string.

--regex, -r

This flag tells tac to interpret the line separator as a regular expression. This is commonly used with the --seperator flag.

Applications

Error logs or any documents written in chronological order have the most recent information at the bottom of the file. tac can provide easy access to that information without having to scroll through the entire file.